Islam is a scaled rule of God through rasull governing all aspects of human life.
talk about islam .. then we will also talk tenteng its rules (sharia) in this paper I will discuss the steps the Prophet in leading the community after hijrahnya to Medina, as well as some previous incidents, this will confirm that the Messenger is the head of a society in what known now as a country. Some evidence can be called, including:
1. Bai'at Aqabah
In the eleventh year of Prophethood, six people from the tribe in Yathrib met Khajraz Rasululah at Aqabah, Mina. They come for Haj. As a result of that encounter, they all convert to Islam. And they promised to invite residents to Yathrib to Islam as well. In the next Haj season, twelve male residents Yathrib the Prophet in the same place, Aqabah. They, in addition to Islam, also vows (bai'at) to the Prophet not to associate God, no stealing, no adultery, no lying, and not betray the Prophet. This bai'at First Aqabah. Then in the next Haj season, as many as seventy-five residents of Yathrib who had converted to Islam visit to Mecca. The Prophet met them at Aqabah. In places, they speak bai'at also, with the same content with bai'at the first, except that the latter is no hint of jihad. They promised to defend the Prophet as defending their wives, is known as bai'at bai'a Aqabah Second.
Both bai'at according Munawir Sadjali (Islam and the State Administration, 1993) is the cornerstone of building an Islamic state. Bai'at is an oath of allegiance to the Prophet some people Yathrib, which is evidence of recognition of Muhammad as a leader, not only as an Apostle, for recognition as the Messenger of Allah not through bai'at but through the shahada. With these two bai'at Messenger has had supporters who proved to be very instrumental in the establishment of the first Islamic state in Medina. On the basis of this same bai'at Prophet asked his companions to migrate to Yathrib, and some time later the Prophet himself participated Hijrah join them.
2. Medina Charter
Muslims started life as a state after the Prophet migrated to Yathrib, which later became Medina. In Madinahlah for the first time the Islamic community was born a free and independent under the leadership of the Prophet Muhammad, there are three classes of people of Medina. First the Muslims of the Emigrants and Helpers, and this group is the majority. Second, the polytheists, ie people and kharaj Aus tribe that has not converted to Islam, this minority group. Third, Jews made up of four groups. One group lived in the city of Medina, the Banu Qunaiqa. Three other groups living outside the city of Medina, the Banu Nadlir, Banu Quaraizhah, and Jewish Khibar. So Medina is a pluralistic society. After about two years of the Prophet emigrated promulgate a charter governing the relationship between communities in Medina, known as the Charter (Watsiqah) Madinah.Inilah considered the first written constitution in the world. Piadam Medina is Islam berasaskan state constitution and prepared in accordance with Islamic Shari'a.
3. The Role As the Head of State
As Head of State, the Prophet was aware of the meaning of human resource development, and the main man so we get tough is growing faith and conviction and obedience to the Islamic Shari'a. This is where the Prophet, according to the apostolic mission of providing primary close attention. Continuing what has he taught his Companions in Mecca, Medina Apostle continues to conduct training in line with the revelation. Apostle build mosques serve as centers of community development. In various areas of life the Prophet make arrangements in accordance with the guidance of Allah SWT. In the area of governance, as the head of the Prophet raised some friends to perform some management functions necessary to run well the community setting. Apostle lifted Abu Bakr and Umar bin Khattab as Wajir. Also raised several other friends as the leader of the Islamic region, including Muadh bin Jabal as Qadi in Yemen at a time guardian.
b. Foreign Affairs
As Head of State, the Messenger of conduct relations with other countries. According to Tahir Azhari (Country of Law, 1992) Prophet sent about 30 pieces a letter to other heads of state, including the Al Muqauqis ruler of Egypt, the Persian ruler Khusraw and Emperor Heraclius, the Roman authorities in Palestine Appeal. The Prophet invited them to Islam, so Islamic countries foreign policy is merely propaganda, if they are not willing to convert to Islam then be asked to submit, and if not then the country will also be fought.
People and State Relations
Role of the People
In Islam there is no such dichotomy between the people and state, because the state was established precisely for the interests govern the lives of people with Islamic Shari'a. The interests of the establishment of Islamic law in its entirety in all fields of life. In the relationship between people and state will be produced a synergistic relationship when both have similar views on three things (Taqiyyudin An Nabhani, System of Islamic Governance, 1997), the first principle of the development of civilization (al Hadlarah principle) is the Islamic Aqeedah, the two benchmarks of action (miqyas al 'amal) are the commands and prohibitions of Allah, the third meaning of happiness (ma'na Sa'adah) in life is to please Allah. These three things are there at the time Rasulllah. Medina made with Islamic principles and Islamic law as the yardstick deeds.
The role of people in Islamic countries there are three, first to implement Islamic law which he must carry out, this is the main pillar of the establishment of Islamic law, namely the willingness of each individual without the supervision of another person solely because of the encouragement taqwa, to obey the rules of Islam, second, watching implementation of Islamic law by the state and course of organization of the state, third, people act as the support of state power both physically and intellectually, to become a developed country, a strong, respected in the midst of the world arena. This is where the potential of the Muslims were deployed for the glory of Islam (Islam wa al-Muslimin Izzul).
In legal persoalaan Personality ', the Muslims bersikan sami' na wa atha'na. Just as the teachings of the Qur'an, Muslims must perform what has been established and are forbidden to leave. In this problem set the head of the Islamic State of its decision on the strength of the argument, rather than deliberation, or when the law was clear then lived alone carry it out. The aspirations of the people in trouble constitution, to know the law Personality 'on various issues and always tied to her every time. Into their aspirations and also to all the people obey the Sharia, and the state carry out obligations syara'nya best. People will act when a deviation occurs.
Beyond the problem of constitution, the Messenger of Allah opened the door deliberations. In deliberation kada Prophet took the most votes, sometimes also taking the correct opinion because the opinion is coming out of an expert in the problems faced. And the friends did not hesitate to express his opinion to the Prophet, after they ask first if this is a revelation from God or the opinion of the Apostle himself.
Islamic law enforced on all citizens, including non-Muslims outside the matter of worship and doctrinal camps. No exceptions and dispensations. No pardon, appeal, or cassation. Each decision is a legal Qadi Personality 'to be executed. Runs independently of the judicial power or influence anyone.
1. Medina is the first Islamic country with the Prophet Muhammad as head of state. State practice in all fields goes well
2. There is no dichotomy between the people and country. Both are supporting pillars upholding God's law and upholding the welfare of determinant
3. So-called people's aspirations in the Islamic state is achieving as well as the implementation of the government with the best of his propagation of Islam in order to attain goals. Outside tasyri problem ', the Islamic guidance decisions are taken by consensus or by majority vote whether the most correct opinion. For the implementation of state with good practice, it is imperative role muhasabah (correction) of the people to the ruler
4. Law is run for all citizens, without exception. No pardon, amnesty, dispensation, appeal or cassation. Qadi's decision is a stay must be carried out